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|Lifespan||Pelican: 15 – 25 years, Emperor penguin: 20 years, Southern royal albatross: 42 years, Little penguin: 6 years|
|Mass||Pelican: 2.8 – 15 kg, Emperor penguin: 23 kg, Southern royal albatross: 8.5kg, Little penguin: 1.5kg|
|Wingspan||Pelican: 1.8 – 3.5 m, Southern royal albatross: 2.9 – 3.3 m,|
|Length||Pelican: 1.1 – 1.8 m, Emperor penguin: 1.2 m, Southern royal albatross: 1.1 – 1.2 m, Little penguin: 43 cm|
There are roughly 20 species of penguins, all of which are found in the Southern hemisphere. All other penguin species are found in Antarctica, sub-Antarctic islands, and the southern portions of South America, Australia, New Zealand, and Africa.
Penguins are perfectly adapted to a life of foraging underwater with their compact, torpedo-shaped bodies. Antarctic species like the Emperor and Adelie penguins have the densest feathers of all the penguins, enabling them to withstand the most dramatic weather extremes on the globe in order to reproduce.
Of all the penguin species, at least half are listed as either threatened or endangered. Penguins like other birds face a number of threats.
Penguins are an order (Sphenisciformes) of seabird confined almost entirely to the Southern Ocean and comprising between 18-21 species. The majority breed on Antarctica, the Sub-Antarctic Islands and the southern portions of Australia, New Zealand, South America, and Africa.
All penguins are found in the Southern Hemisphere, with the Galapagos Penguin in Ecuador being the northernmost species. All other penguin species are confined to the Southern Ocean. Including Antarctica, the Sub-Antarctic Islands, the southern portions of Australia, New Zealand, South America and Africa.
Of the roughly 18-20 extant (living) species of penguins, at least half of these are either threatened or endangered. Of the 18 species listed on the IUCN’s Red List of Threatened Species, 2 are listed as near threatened, 7 as vulnerable, and 4 as endangered.
Learn more about threats to birds here.